Special Schools Only limited mention need be made of the ten special schools operated by the Grand Rapids system, e. It was her testimony that she did obtain such a letter and that, on the basis of that, the boys were transferred to Northeast Middle.
On a long-range planning basis, the Board desired to achieve better racial balance within the system. If, in fact, there are twenty rooms in an inner-city school and the 23 to 1 ratio is maintained, does it therefore follow that the school is under-utilized to the extent of students?
A About the only possible instance of this, I testified to would have been the move in the south — between South Junior and Burton Junior High.
His opinion testimony, however, was based Wrigley case finance 444 upon standard capacity figures and accordingly could at best be no more valid than the facts upon which he relied. The provision is normal and educationally sound and was not seriously complained of during the trial. From the record, however, including the statistical data, Board Minutes, testimony of Wrigley case finance 444 and examination overall of the changing racial patterns of schools in the system, the court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the decrease in white school enrollment within the Grand Rapids School District has been substantially motivated to a significant degree by public apprehension over the possibility of undesired integration efforts.
It exists also because of Board reluctance Wrigley case finance 444 bring in and exchange students from the outer areas of the school district, and this reluctance is based primarily upon an apprehension that by doing so, an outflow of white population from the district will be generated and will, in the end, be self-defeating of their ultimate purposes.
Q And that you Wrigley case finance 444 to make projections based on the information that is available at the time as to the future enrollment patterns, population patterns, and so on?
The optional attendance area is best described as the north half of the Beckwith Elementary School attendance zone and seen by placing overlays PX 7B5 and PX 7D5 over base map PX 82 bounded generally on the south by Leonard Street, on the west by Fuller Avenue, on the north by Sweet Street and extending on a line projected from Sweet Street almost directly east to and in line with the Grand Rapids city limits.
Early Elementary schools were to be designed fundamentally on a neighborhood basis, and in the inner-city particularly, to be coordinated with parent participation programs, Head Start and Follow Through, and programs to improve language skills to enable those children to compete more successfully in later grades.
Q You have also testified in other cases that one of the classic techniques of a difference in the physical quality of the schools and services that are rendered in the schools, comparing predominantly black schools with predominantly white schools, is that right? Q Would you also agree that kind of decision, the location of a school, or the decision to make an addition to a school, in addition to being based on those factors, has to be based really on a look at the overall school system, that you cannot take one part of it and isolate it from the rest of the system and make a decision of that kind?
To anyone endeavoring with objectivity to consider the contentions of the parties, the most singular impression is of the unending dilemmas which face the school officials of a large urban system. Before the area had been a part of Central.
Q Now, you also identify as one of the classic methods of — techniques of segregation de jure, the gerrymandering of attendance zones, is that right? The federal criteria was socio-economic status SESbased upon income level, number of broken families, family education levels and other like factors.
Organizationally, the schools were to work toward separate schools for Early Elementary Pre-kindergarten to Third Grade, Elementary Schools or K-5Middle Schoolsreplacing former junior high schools and High Schools The inference that decreased white attendance is solely attributable to movement to the suburbs must be tempered by the fact that, during the same period, there was a net increase of public school enrollment within the eleven added suburban school districts of only 1, The court finds, however, that the intent and purpose of both the Master Plan and the implementation to date is to achieve a maximum amount of racial balance within the system without compelling white students to be transported into schools in the predominantly black residential areas, out of fear that by doing so, such action would generate an exodus of whites from the system and hence be self-defeating.
As previously mentioned, one immediate impact of the Master Plan and Board action was to reduce teacher-student classroom ratios. The immediate plans and first phase of the Master Plan were carried out, but later phases have been held up. School rooms themselves differ in size and layout from room to room and from school to school.
Runkel was under the impression that the area was relatively stable, whereas Miller was of the opinion that the black population there was slowly increasing.
The easterly boundaries of the area are those of the Grand Rapids city limits at East Beltline Avenue. Anyone examining his testimony must necessarily be cautioned to read it in its entirety, and against the entire record.View Essay - Report on AirThread Connections - Group B3_ from FINANCE at HKU.
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Quimbee Pricing & Signup - Quimbee Toggle navigation. C. Finance In terms of finance, the Grand Rapids School District enjoys a favorable position compared with the other eleven local school districts added as defendants in this lawsuit.
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