Furthermore, decreasing food intake also decreases the level of iron in the blood, thereby decreasing bacterial replication.
Brain Scans More recently methods of studying the brain have been developed using various types of scanning equipment hooked up to powerful computers.
This technique cured his epilepsy, but in the process the hippocampus had to be removed this is part of the limbic system in the middle of the brain.
The elevated basal levels of stress hormones associated with chronic stress also suppress immunity by directly affecting cytokine profiles. Twins are said to be disconcordant for a trait if one shows it, and the other does not.
Below is a brief discussion of the multiple biological, psychological and social factors that have been identified as being related to the development of depression. Social support helps reduce the effect of stress. Even more sophisticated is the PET scan Positron Emission Tomography which uses a radioactive marker as a way of studying the brain at work.
Other important findings based upon this model have been that heart-rate reactivity to the threat of capture predicts severity of atherosclerosis Manuck et al. Stress is a very common problem being faced today.
We have also described how psychosocial stressors influence mental health and how psychosocial treatments may ameliorate both mental and physical disorders. Bouchard and McGue conducted a review of worldwide studies which compared the IQ of family members. Current research suggests that a decrease in the production of serotonin by these neurons can cause depression in some people, and more specifically, a mood state that can cause some people to feel suicidal.
From an evolutionary perspective, cardiac responses are believed to facilitate active coping by shunting blood to skeletal muscles, consistent with the fight-or-flight response.
The major findings were that a socially dominant animals living in unstable groups had significantly more atherosclerosis than did less dominant animals living in unstable groups; and b socially dominant male animals living in unstable groups had significantly more atherosclerosis than did socially dominant animals living in stable groups.
Effects of an early structured psychiatric intervention, coping and affective state on recurrence and survival 6 years later. Animal models provide an important tool for helping to understand the specific influences of stressors on disease processes.
What we do know is that antidepressant medications used to treat the symptoms of depression are known to act upon these particular neurotransmitters and their receptors.
Treatment of Major Depression. For example, an overall decrease in activity allows the sick individual to preserve energy resources that can be redirected toward enhancing immune activity.
On the other hand, psychological responses such as anxiety, hopelessness, depression, irritability, and a general feeling of not being able to cope with the world, can result from the stress state.
Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. Biology of Depression You may have heard that depression is the result of a simple imbalance of brain chemicals. The neurotransmitters are then repackaged and reused the next time a message needs to be sent across the synapse. The time frame for ASD is shorter lasting two days to four weekswith diagnosis limited to within one month of the incident.
Usually two broad type of coping types are seen- Instrumental coping and Emotional coping. The drug works by increasing dopamine levels, but this has also been known to simultaneously provoke the development of schizophrenic-type symptoms Grilly, Also a crucial assumption underlying twin studies is that, in general, the environments for monozygotic and dizygotic twins are equivalent and therefore the greater concordance rate in monozygotic twins is due to genetic factors.
This type of schizophrenia does not respond well to antipsychotic medication. The stable group exhibited more affiliative behavior and less agonistic behavior than the unstable group and significantly less atherosclerosis than each of the other two groups.
These are intriguing hypotheses that emphasize the role that stressors may play in disease. Therefore Joseph argues that the greater concordance rate seen in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins is a result of the differing attitudes and environments experienced by the two types of twins.
Much of the risk gradient in CHD can be eliminated, however, by taking into account lack of perceived job control, which is a potent stressor Marmot et al.
Despite the fact that abnormalities have been found in neuro-anatomical structures in the brains of schizophrenic patients, findings have been controversial and it has been occasionally difficult to pinpoint exactly how these abnormalities could be causing schizophrenic symptoms. A biological perspective is relevant to the study Biological factors involved in stress essay psychology in three ways: Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces distress and hour urinary free cortisol output among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men.
Both these disorders have as prominent features a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or serious injury and symptom clusters including re-experiencing of the traumatic event e. Together, catecholamines and cortisol increase available sources of energy by promoting lipolysis and the conversion of glycogen into glucose i.
These definitions indicate that stress represents those conditions under which individuals have demand made upon them, that they cannot physically or psychologically meet, leading to breakdown at one or other of these levels. Issues with the dopamine hypothesis are in abundance in spite of supporting evidence.
What acts to produce distress varies from person to person, but some events seem to be stressors for every person. Also, post-mortem examinations used as evidence to support the dopamine hypothesis are usually carried out on patients that have been taking neuroleptic drugs for years, meaning that it is difficult to tell whether alterations in dopamine receptor sites were caused by schizophrenia or the drugs themselves.Essay on Biological Factors involved in Stress Words | 7 Pages.
are under a constant threat of stress and thus, psychological and medical sciences have long been concerned with studying stress. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the individual’s biological vulnerability (i.e., genetics, constitutional factors), psychosocial resources, and learned patterns of coping.
Essay on Biological Factors involved in Stress Words 7 Pages Psychological and physical well-being and the overall quality of life are under a constant threat of stress and thus, psychological and medical sciences have long been concerned with studying stress response. The process of physiological stress response starts from the moment the body realizes the presence of the stressor, followed by the sending of signals to the brain, and to the specific sympathetic and hormonal responses to eliminate, reduce or cope with the stress.
1. Describe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identify some of the biological, psychological, and social factors associated with the disorder.
Briefly discuss how PTSD could treated using the psychological, biomedical and social approaches described in your textbook. Posttraumatic stress disorder is a is an anxiety disorder that may develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in 95%(44).
The evidence for biological factors in the onset and progress of depression is strong but not as strong as that for schizophrenia; as with schizophrenia, many of these biological factors (i.e. genes, biochemical factors) are not ultimate causes and may be only peripherally or indirectly involved.Download