Unlock This Study Guide Now Start your hour free trial to unlock this page The French Revolution study guide and get instant access to the following: Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory Directoire appointed by parliament. No French ruler after the Revolution dared to reverse the property and rights acquisitions gained during the Revolution, so citizens who had purchased church land were allowed to keep it.
Though there had been other internal revolutions in European countries, few were as massive and convoluted as the French Revolution, which empowered citizens everywhere and resulted in a considerable leap toward the end of oppression throughout Europe.
Continued on next page Neighbor turned in neighbor. It insisted that all the estates be merged into one national assembly and that each representative had one vote. They also unleashed the bloody Reign of Terror la Terreura month period in which suspected enemies of the revolution were guillotined by the thousands.
It is possible to identify some of the means that Carlyle employs to create his apocalyptic vision—a vision, not of last things, but certainly of the forces that combine to drive history onward.
He closed the chambers where the Assembly was to convene, but the Assembly immediately moved to an indoor tennis court. The World Book Encyclopedia, volume 7. Political problems increased, and food riots broke out due to food shortages. Finally, the king realized that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed, so he appointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de Calonne, in The moderate Girondins took a stance in favor of retaining the constitutional monarchy, while the radical Jacobins wanted the king completely out of the picture.
In the First Estate were the clergy, usually the younger sons of the nobility. Robespierre succeeded in having Danton and other former leaders executed.
In the face of this rout, and having received word of political upheavals in France, Napoleon returned to Paris. Even the French Guard believed the rumors.
The inheritance was fatal. In addition, they called for a Republic. Courts handed down about 18, death sentences in what was called the Reign of Terror. Bonaparte seized control of the government on November 9,ending the revolution. With Napoleon at the helm, the Revolution ended, and France entered a fifteen-year period of military rule.
Noting a downward economic spiral in the late s, King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisors to review the weakened French treasury.
On the domestic front, meanwhile, the political crisis took a radical turn when a group of insurgents led by the extremist Jacobins attacked the royal residence in Paris and arrested the king on August 10, With the French Revolution began the institutionalization of secularized individualism in both social life and politics; individualism and rationality found expression in parliamentary government and written constitutionalism.
However, it ended supreme rule by French kings and strengthened the middle class. From aboutthis trend slackened, and economic crises, provoking alarm and even revolt, became frequent.
At the beginning of the revolution, events seemed minor and proceeded in a logical fashion.
On July 14, a mob of citizens seized 30, muskets from the Invalides and attacked the Bastille, where the French government kept the royal store of gunpowder.
Furthermore, from abouthigher standards of living had reduced the mortality rate among adults considerably. While all of the orders shared a common desire for fiscal and judicial reform as well as a more representative form of government, the nobles in particular were loath to give up the privileges they enjoyed under the traditional system.
Years of feudal oppression and fiscal mismanagement contributed to a French society that was ripe for revolt. A popular insurgency culminated on July 14 when rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons; many consider this event, now commemorated in France as a national holiday, as the start of the French Revolution.
He produces not simply another history of a vexed period, full of rationalized information. Unfortunately, the new government put Napoleon Bonaparte in charge of its army.
However, since two of the three estates—the clergy and the nobility—were tax-exempt, the attainment of any such solution was unlikely. The sans-culottes closed all the churches in Paris and even took over Notre-Dame cathedral and made it an atheistic "Temple of Reason.
They began burning and looting the countryside, and even common soldiers began talking against their aristocratic officers. The king and the first two estates refused the demands of the third estate. In fact, however, Louis simply stationed the Swiss Guard where he did because the French Guard refused to fight against their own countrymen.
In the Convention, they were known as the mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall during meetings. When Louis XVI was caught in a foiled escape plot, the assembly became especially divided. At this point, the Swiss Guard marched into Paris in early July.
The new tax system remained devoid of the influence of privilege, so that every man paid his share according to personal wealth.Analysis of the French Revolution, Free Study Guides and book notes including comprehensive chapter analysis, complete summary analysis, author biography information, character profiles, theme analysis, metaphor analysis, and top ten quotes on classic literature.
Critical Essays The French Revolution Bookmark this page Manage My Reading List When Louis XVI became King of France inhe inherited a country with economic distress, social unrest, a debauched court, and problems with the nobility and parlement (the courts of justice). The French Revolution has often been called the start of the modern world, and while this is an exaggeration—many of the supposed ‘revolutionary’ developments had precursors—it was an epochal event that permanently changed the European mindset.
Video: Reflections on the Revolution in France: Summary & Analysis Edmund Burke's 'Reflections on the Revolution in France' is a powerful argument against the excesses of the French Revolution. In this essay, he argued for balance between liberty and order. Complete summary of Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France.
eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of Reflections on the Revolution in France.
a young French. The French Revolution is a landmark in the history of nineteenth century English literature, the work that, after the comparative public failure of Sartor Resartus (), helped to establish Thomas Carlyle.
In its dramatic picture of the French Revolution it offers the reader an estimate of an event that disturbed and shocked the consciences of .Download